Jump to content
JWTalk - Jehovah's Witnesses Online Community

Coffee Basics explained


We lock topics that are over 365 days old, and the last reply made in this topic was 1644 days ago. If you want to discuss this subject, we prefer that you start a new topic.

Recommended Posts

I don't know about you but I'm always trying different coffee to find the perfect cup. When I go to the grocery store, I come up to a wall off different coffee and would stand there a bit befuddled for some 20 minutes before making a choice that I hope will be ok. Until I did some research, it was all just a guessing game to me. So here are some coffee basics for everyone who is looking for a good morning cup of coffee.

From https://www.roastycoffee.com/complete-list-every-type-coffee-exists/

Coffee Beans

There are many different types of coffee species, not unlike the different species of other fruits out there. Still, most of the beans produced and used can be divided into two main species:

  • Arabica
  • Robusta

Arabica beans account for a majority of the coffee produced and sold in the world today. Robusta beans, on the other hand, are a much stronger and bitter bean that is produced and used in many types of espressos and even for those that prefer a really strong coffee.

 

from: https://theroasterspack.com/blogs/news/15409365-10-differences-between-robusta-arabica-coffee

10 differences Between Robusta & Arabica Coffee

September 19, 2014

You may have noticed that some coffee bag labels brag about the fact that their coffee beans are 100% Arabica. Although it does sound like something magicians say, it isn’t gibberish – it refers to the type of coffee species in which the beans are from.

There are over 100 coffee species, however the two main ones that are widely produced and sold are: Coffea Arabica and Coffea Canephora (also known as Coffea Robusta).

Brewing Happiness

Here’s a list featuring 10 differences between the two coffee species:

  1. The most commonly known: Taste. Often Robusta has its taste described as burnt tires or rubbery, which… sounds disgusting (can you imagine one of our taste swatches on the front page being a burnt tire?). Why the bad taste?
  2. One reason that the taste isn't as good for Robusta is that it has more caffeine compared to Arabica. Which may sound like a positive thing but caffeine carries a bitter taste which makes it an unpleasant drink. In fact the Robusta bean has 2.7% caffeine content, almost double the 1.5% of Arabica.
  3. Lipid & Sugar content: As mentioned here, Arabica contains almost 60% more lipids and almost twice the concentration of sugar than Robusta. This factor also probably has a big impact on why we prefer the taste of Arabica.
  4. From a price perspective, green beans of Robusta is about half the price of Arabica green beans on the commodity market. (Robusta vs. Arabica)
  5. Robusta is easier to tend to on the farm, has a higher yield and is less sensitive to insects - the extra caffeine is a chemical defense for the coffee seed as the quantity in the Robusta is toxic to bugs.

All of these factors help bring up the supply and lower the input costs for farmers to produce. With this more attractive price point, a lot of roasters back in the day would add Robusta to their blend in an attempt to reduce their costs and increase their profits. When coffee was initially sold in the 1900s the quality of coffee slowly and slowly deteriorated in an effort for companies to squeeze the most profit.  

  1. Where you’ll find it: Nowadays, it’s not often you’ll find Robusta in a coffee blend. If you’re drinking instant coffee? Well, that’s probably all Robusta… but you probably don’t care very much about taste. In your espresso blend? That’s a mixed bag. Literally. Oddly enough, Robusta is still widely used as part of espresso blends – specifically Italian style blends. It is said to help improve the Crema. However, generally at a detriment to the taste, which in our opinion the priorities may be out of wack.

One thing to note is despite the association with Arabica of being higher quality, and Robusta as being lower quality, it’s not always the case. Top notch specialty Robusta coffee will usually taste as good as or better than low end Arabica. However, high end Robusta isn’t widely used or available. Rather, Robusta is usually used as a filler or cost reducer.  

  1. The Shape: Robusta beans are much more circular, whereas Arabica are more oval.
  2. Plant Height: Arabica usually grows between 2.5 – 4.5 meters compared to the 4.5 – 6 meter height of Robusta.
  3. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) content: This picture unfortunately, isn’t true – however something that is actually a part of coffee is CGA. It’s a significant antioxidant and an insect deterrent. Robusta is 7-10% CGA and Arabica has 5.5-8% CGA.
  4. Cultivation: About 75% of the world’s coffee production is Arabica, about 25% being Robusta. Brazil is the most significant Arabica producer and Vietnam produces the most Robusta.

 

Now onto the different Roasts

 

from: https://www.coffeecrossroads.com/coffee-101/coffee-roasts-from-light-to-dark

Coffee Roasts from Light to Dark

By Brian Lokker. Published April 5, 2013, last updated January 4, 2017.

Diedrich IR Series Coffee RoasterWhat’s your favorite coffee roast? Dark? Light? Somewhere in between? Here’s a “coffee 101” guide to coffee roasts from light to dark.

The degree to which coffee beans are roasted is one of the most important factors that determine the taste of the coffee in the cup. Before roasting, green coffee beans are soft, with a fresh “grassy” smell and little or no taste. The coffee roasting process transforms these raw beans into the distinctively aromatic, flavorful, crunchy beans that we recognize as coffee.

Other factors of course enter into the complex equation that determines your coffee’s taste. Two coffee varieties, from different countries of origin or grown in different environments, are likely to taste quite different even when roasted to the same level (especially at light to medium roast levels). The age of the coffee, the processing method, the grind, and the brewing method will also affect the taste. But the roast level provides a baseline, a rough guide to the taste you can expect.

The most common way to describe coffee roast levels is by the color of the roasted beans, ranging from light to dark (or extra dark). As coffee beans absorb heat in the roasting process, their color becomes darker. Oils appear on the surface of the beans at higher temperatures. Because coffee beans vary, color is not an especially accurate way of judging a roast. But combined with the typical roasting temperature that yields a particular shade of brown, color is a convenient way to categorize roasting levels.

Roast level preferences are subjective. The roast level you like may depend on where you live. In the United States, folks on the West Coast have traditionally preferred darker roasts than those on the East Coast. Europeans have also favored dark roasts, lending their names to the so-called French, Italian, and Spanish roasts that dominate the darker end of the roasting spectrum.

Roast names and descriptions are not standardized in the coffee industry. Starbucks, for example, uses its Starbucks Roast Spectrum ™ to categorize its coffees within three roast profiles: Starbucks® Blonde Roast (“light-bodied and mellow,” like its Veranda Blend™), Starbucks® Medium Roast (“smooth and balanced”), and Starbucks® Dark Roast (“fuller-bodied and bold”). California-based roaster Rogers Family Company, on the other hand, has five roasting levels ranging from medium to extra dark. (Its San Francisco Bay Fog Chaser blend, for example, is a Full City medium roast coffee.)

In general, though, we can categorize the most common coffee roasts from light to dark as follows:

Light Roasts

Coffee roasts: Cinnamon RoastCoffee roasts: New England RoastLight roasts are light brown in color, with a light body and no oil on the surface of the beans. Light roasts have a toasted grain taste and pronounced acidity. The origin flavors of the bean are retained to a greater extent than in darker roasted coffees. Light roasts also retain most of the caffeine from the coffee bean.

Light roasted beans generally reach an internal temperature of 180°C – 205°C (356°F – 401°F). At or around 205°C, the beans pop or crack and expand in size. This is known as the “first crack” (for the “second crack,” see below). So a light roast generally means a coffee that has not been roasted beyond the first crack.

Some common roast names within the Light Roast category are Light City, Half City, Cinnamon Roast (roasted to just before first crack), and New England Roast (a popular roast in the northeastern United States, roasted to first crack).

Medium Roasts

Coffee roasts: American RoastCoffee roasts: City RoastMedium roasted coffees are medium brown in color with more body than light roasts. Like the lighter roasts, they have no oil on the bean surfaces. However, medium roasts lack the grainy taste of the light roasts, exhibiting more balanced flavor, aroma, and acidity. Caffeine is somewhat decreased, but there is more caffeine than in darker roasts.

Medium roasts reach internal temperatures between 210°C (410°F) and 220°C  (428°F) — between the end of the first crack and just before the beginning of the second crack.

Common roast names within the Medium Roast level include Regular Roast, American Roast (the traditional roast in the eastern United States, roasted to the end of the first crack), City Roast (medium brown, a typical roast throughout the United States), and Breakfast Roast.

Medium-Dark Roasts

Coffee roasts: Full City RoastCoffee roasts: Vienna RoastMedium-dark roasts have a richer, darker color with some oil beginning to show on the surface of the beans. A medium-dark roast has a heavy body in comparison with the lighter or medium roasts.

The beans are roasted to the beginning or middle of the second crack — about 225°C (437°F) or 230°C (446°F). The flavors and aromas of the roasting process become noticeable, and the taste of the coffee may be somewhat spicy.

Among the most common names for a medium-dark roast are Full-City Roast (roasted to the beginning of the second crack), After Dinner Roast, and Vienna Roast (roasted to the middle of the second crack, sometimes characterized as a dark roast instead).

Dark Roasts

Coffee roasts: French RoastCoffee roasts: Italian RoastDark roasted coffees are dark brown in color, like chocolate, or sometimes almost black. They have a sheen of oil on the surface, which is usually evident in the cup when the dark roast coffee is brewed. The coffee’s origin flavors are eclipsed by the flavors of the roasting process. The coffee will generally have a bitter and smoky or even burnt taste. The amount of caffeine is substantially decreased.

To reach the level of a dark roast, coffee beans are roasted to an internal temperature of 240°C (464°F) — about the end of the second crack — or beyond. They are seldom roasted to a temperature exceeding 250°C (482°F), at which point the body of the beans is thin and the taste is characterized by flavors of tar and charcoal.

Dark roasts go by many names. As a result, buying a dark roast can be confusing. Some of the more popular designations for a dark roast include French Roast, Italian Roast, Espresso Roast, Continental Roast, New Orleans Roast, and Spanish Roast. Many dark roasts are used for espresso blends.

So there you have it — a short guide to the common coffee roasts from light to dark. To summarize the differences, in addition to the color gradations:

  • As coffee roasts get darker, they lose the origin flavors of the beans and take on more flavor from the roasting process.
  • The body of the coffee gets heavier, until the second crack, where the body again thins.
  • Lighter roasts have more acidity than darker roasts.
  • Light roasted beans are dry, while darker roasts develop oil on the bean surface.
  • The caffeine level decreases as the roast gets darker.

Ultimately, it’s all about the taste, the flavor, the aroma. You may prefer a lighter roast in the morning (with more caffeine) and a darker one later in the day. Coffee, including the optimal roast level, is a personal preference. What’s yours?

 

So what's your favorite coffee now?

 

Link to comment
Share on other sites

It's funny I used equate expresso as being strong because it has lots of caffeine but from this research, the lighter roasts have more.  I always  wondered why I would get more jittery drinking lighter roasts. Guess my stomach can't handle all that caffeine.

 

I like a full bodied dark roast.  And if it doesn't specify 100% Arabica, I stay away from it. Bring on the flavours: French vanilla, amaretto, hazelnut etc...

 

100% Sumatran coffee is surprisingly very different flavored.  Guess they take on different flavours depending where they are grown.

 

For a really good instant coffee, check out. It's my favourite and goes well sprinkled over French vanilla ice cream.

nescafe.jpg.93539eece31305b7cc0b2f729868d924.jpg

 

Link to comment
Share on other sites

  • Recently Browsing   0 members

    • No registered users viewing this page.

About JWTalk.net - Jehovah's Witnesses Online Community

Since 2006, JWTalk has proved to be a well-moderated online community for real Jehovah's Witnesses on the web. However, our community is not an official website of Jehovah's Witnesses. It is not endorsed, sponsored, or maintained by any legal entity used by Jehovah's Witnesses. We are a pro-JW community maintained by brothers and sisters around the world. We expect all community members to be active publishers in their congregations, therefore, please do not apply for membership if you are not currently one of Jehovah's Witnesses.

×
×
  • Create New...

Important Information

We have placed cookies on your device to help make this website better. You can adjust your cookie settings, otherwise we'll assume you're okay to continue.

JWTalk 22.1.2 (changelog)